Show More

Below is a listing of our papers.  Click on any one of them to take you to PubMed or the publisher's site where you can download the paper with a subscription. Request for reprints can be sent directly to Dr. Putnam (


M. Aliabouzar, C.D. Davidson, W.Y. Wang, O.D. Kripfgans, R.T. Franceschi, A.J. Putnam, J.B. Fowlkes, B.M. Baker, and M.L. Fabiilli. “Spatiotemporal control of micromechanics and microstructure in acoustically-responsive scaffolds using acoustic droplet vaporization.Soft Matter (in press).

X. Lu, H. Jin, C. Quesada, E.C. Farrell, L. Huang, M. Aliabouzar, O.D. Kripfgans, J.B. Fowlkes, R.T. Franceschi, A.J. Putnam, M.L. Fabiilli. “Spatially-directed cell migration in acoustically-responsive scaffolds through the controlled delivery of basic fibroblast growth factor.Acta Biomaterialia (in press).

B.A. Juliar, C. Strieder-Barboza, M. Karmakar, C.G. Flesher, N.A. Baker, O.A. Varban, C.N. Lumeng, A.J. Putnam, R.W. O’Rourke. “Viscoelastic characterization of diabetic and non-diabetic human adipose tissue.Biorheology (in press).

 B.A. Juliar, J.A. Beamish, M.E. Busch, D.S. Cleveland, L. Nimmagadda, and A.J. Putnam. “Cell-mediated matrix stiffening accompanies capillary morphogenesis in ultrasoft amorphous hydrogels.” Biomaterials, 230:119634 (2020).


X. Dong, X. Lu, K. Kingston, E. Brewer, B.A. Juliar, O.D. Kripfgans, J.B. Fowlkes, R.T. Franceschi, A.J. Putnam, Z. Liu, M.L. Fabiilli. “Controlled delivery of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) using acoustic droplet vaporization stimulates endothelial network formation.Acta Biomaterialia, 97:409-419 (2019).

X. Lu, X. Dong, S. Nalta, O.D. Kripfgans, J.B. Fowlkes, X. Wang, R. Franceschi, A.J. Putnam, and M.L. Fabiilli. "Parametric study of acoustic droplet vaporization thresholds and payload release from acoustically-responsive scaffolds.Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, 45(9):2471-2484 (2019). 


J.A. Beamish, B.A. Juliar, D.S. Cleveland, M.E. Busch, L. Nimmagadda, and A.J. Putnam. “Deciphering the relative roles of matrix metalloproteinase and plasmin-mediated matrix degradation during capillary morphogenesis using engineered hydrogels.Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials, 107(8):2507-251 (2019).

W. Lee, N. Kalashnikov, S. Mok, R. Halaoui, E. Kuzmin, A.J. Putnam, S. Takayama, M. Park, L. McCaffrey, R. Zhao, R.L. Leask, and C. Moraes. “Dispersible hydrogel force sensors reveal patterns of solid mechanical stress in multicellular spheroid cultures.” Nature Communications, 10(1):144 (2019).

M. M. Capeling, M. Czerwinski, S. Huang, Y. Tsai, A. Wu, M.S. Nagy, B. Juliar, N. Sundaram, Y. Song, W.M. Han, S. Takayama, E. Alsberg, A.J. Garcia, M. Helmrath, A.J. Putnam, J.R. Spence. "Non-adhesive alginate hydrogels support growth of pluripotent stem cell-derived intestinal organoids." Stem Cell Reports, 12:1-14 (2019).

J.R. Bezenah, A.Y. Rioja, B. Juliar, N. Friend, and A.J. Putnam. "Assessing the ability of human endothelial cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells to form functional microvasculature in vivo.Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 116(2):415-426 (2019).


Y.P. Kong, A.Y. Rioja, X. Xue, Y. Sun, J. Fu, and A.J. Putnam. “A Systems Mechanobiology Model to Predict Cardiac Reprogramming Outcomes on Different Biomaterials.” Biomaterials, 181:280-292 (2018).


A. Moncion, M. Lin, O.D. Kripfgans, R.T. Franceschi, A.J. Putnam, and M.L. Fabiilli. “Sequential payload release from acoustically-responsive scaffolds using focused ultrasound.” Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, 44(11):2323-2335 (2018).

R.T. Annamalai, T. Naik, H. Prout, A.J. Putnam, and J.P. Stegemann. “Biofabrication of injectable fibrin microtissues for minimally-invasive therapies: application of surfactants.Biomedical Materials, 13(4):045005 (2018).

B.A. Juliar, M.T. Keating, Y.P. Kong, E.L. Botvinick, and A.J. Putnam. “Sprouting angiogenesis induces significant mechanical heterogeneities and ECM stiffening across length scales in fibrin hydrogels.” Biomaterials, 162:99-108 (2018).

J.R. Bezenah, Y.P. Kong, and A.J. Putnam. “Evaluating the potential of endothelial cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells to form microvascular networks in 3D cultures.Scientific Reports, 8(1): 2671 (2018).


A. Moncion, M. Lin, E.G. O’Neill, R.T. Franceschi, O.D. Kripfgans, A.J. Putnam, and M.L. Fabiilli. “Controlled release of basic fibroblast growth factor for angiogenesis using acoustically-responsive scaffolds.” Biomaterials, 140:26-36 (2017).

J.A. Beamish, E. Chen, and A.J. Putnam. “Engineered extracellular matrices with controlled mechanics modulate renal proximal tubular cell epithelialization.” PLOS One, 12(7): e0181085 (2017).

A.Y. Rioja, E.L. Daley, J.C. Habif, A.J. Putnam, and J.P. Stegemann. “Distributed vasculogenesis from modular agarose-hydroxyapatite-fibrinogen microbeads.” Acta Biomaterialia, 55:144-152 (2017).


A.J. Putnam, “Mechanobiological Control of Cell Fate for Applications in Cardiovascular Regenerative Medicine” (book chapter) in Molecular and Cellular Mechanobiology, eds. S. Chien, A. Engler, and Y. Wang, American Physiological Society, Springer, New York, NY, pgs. 219-253 (2016). ISBN 978-1-4939-5617-3

R.T. Annamalai, A.Y. Rioja, A.J. Putnam, and J.P. Stegemann. “Vascular Network Formation by Human Microvascular Endothelial Cells in Modular Fibrin Microtissues.ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering, 2(11): 1914–1925 (2016).


A. Moncion, K.J. Arlotta, E.G. O’Neill, M. Lin, R.T. Franceschi, O.D. Kripfgans, A.J. Putnam, and M.L. Fabiilli. “In vitro and in vivo assessment of controlled release and degradation of acoustically-responsive scaffolds.Acta Biomaterialia, 46:221-233 (2016).

B. Carrion, M.F. Souzanchi, V.T. Wang, G. Tiruchinapally, A. Shikanov, A.J. Putnam, and R.M. Coleman. “The synergistic effects of matrix stiffness and composition on the response of chondroprogenitor cells in a 3D precondensation microenvironment.Advanced Healthcare Materials, 5(10): 1192-202 (2016).


J. Kim, Y.P. Kong, S.M. Niedzielski, R.K. Singh, A.J. Putnam, and A. Shikanov. "Characterization of the crosslinking kinetics of multi-arm poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels formed via Michael-type addition.Soft Matter, 12(7): 2076-85 (2016).


A.Y. Rioja, R.T. Annamalai, S. Paris, A.J. Putnam*, and J.P. Stegemann*. “Endothelial sprouting and network formation in collagen- and fibrin-based modular microbeads.Acta Biomaterialia, 29: 33-41 (2016). (* denotes co-corresponding authors)


A. Moncion, K.J. Arlotta, O.D. Kripfgans, J.B. Fowlkes, P.L. Carson, A.J. Putnam, R.T. Franceschi, M.L. Fabiilli. “Design and characterization of fibrin-based acoustically responsive scaffolds for tissue engineering applications.Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, 42(1): 257-71 (2016).



E. Vlaisavljevich, K.W. Lin, A. Maxwell, M. Warnez, L. Mancia, R. Singh, A.J. Putnam, B. Fowlkes, E. Johnsen, C. Cain, Z. Xu. “Effects of Ultrasound Frequency and Tissue Stiffness on the Histotripsy Intrinsic Threshold for Cavitation.” Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, 41(6): 1651-67 (2015).


E. Vlaisavljevich, K.W. Lin, M. Warnez, R. Singh, L. Mancia, A.J. Putnam, E. Johnsen, C. Cain, Z. Xu. “Effects of tissue stiffness, ultrasound frequency, and pressure on histotripsy-induced cavitation bubble behavior.” Physics in Medicine and Biology, 60(6): 2271-92 (2015).


R.R. Rao, M.L. Vigen, A.W. Peterson, D.J. Caldwell, A.J. Putnam, and J.P. Stegemann. “Dual-Phase Osteogenic and Vasculogenic Engineered Tissue for Bone Formation.” Tissue Engineering: Part A, 21(3-4): 530-40 (2015).


I.A. Janson and A.J. Putnam. “Extracellular matrix elasticity and topography: material-based cues that affect cell function via conserved mechanisms.” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research-Part A, 103(3): 1246-58 (2015).


A.J. Putnam, “Microenvironmental Control of Stem Cell Fate” (book chapter) in Biomaterials for Cardiac Regeneration, eds. M. Ruel and E. Suuronen, Springer, New York, NY, pgs. 93-115 (2015).



A.J. Putnam. “The Instructive Role of the Vasculature in Stem Cell Niches.” Biomaterials Science, 2(11): 1562-73 (2014).


A.W. Peterson, D.J. Caldwell, A.Y. Rioja, R.R. Rao, A.J. Putnam, and J.P. Stegemann. “Vasculogenesis and Angiogenesis in Modular Collagen-Fibrin Microtissues.” Biomaterials Science, 2(10):1497-1508 (2014).


M.L. Vigen, J. Ceccarelli, and A.J. Putnam. “Protease-Sensitive PEG Hydrogels Regulate Vascularization In Vitro and In Vivo.” Macromolecular Bioscience, 14(10): 1368-79 (2014).


R.R. Rao, J. Ceccarelli, M.L. Vigen, M. Gudur, R. Singh, C.X. Deng, A.J. Putnam, and J.P. Stegemann. “Effects of Hydroxyapatite on Endothelial Network Formation in Collagen/Fibrin Composite Hydrogels In Vitro and In Vivo.Acta Biomaterialia, 10(7): 3091-7 (2014).


I.A. Janson, Y.P. Kong, and A.J. Putnam. “Nanotopographic substrates of poly(methyl methacrylate) do not strongly influence the osteogenic phenotype of mesenchymal stem cells in vitro.PLoS ONE, 9(3):e90719 (2014).

R.K. Singh, M. Vigen, and A.J. Putnam, “Mesenchymal Support Cells in the Assembly of Functional Vascular Networks” (book chapter) in Vascularization: Regenerative Medicine and Tissue Engineering, ed. E. Brey, CRC Press, pgs. 37-57 (2014).


S. Yeasmin, J. Ceccarelli, M. Vigen, B. Carrion, A.J. Putnam, S.A. Tarle, and D. Kaigler. “Stem cells derived from tooth periodontal ligament enhance functional angiogenesis by endothelial cells.” Tissue Engineering: Part A, 29(7-8):1188-96 (2014).


J. Ceccarelli and A.J. Putnam. “Sculpting the blank slate: how fibrin’s support of vascularization can inspire biomaterial design.” Acta Biomaterialia, 10(4):1515-1523 (2014).


B. Carrion, I.A. Janson, Y.P. Kong, and A.J. Putnam. “A Safe and Efficient Method to Retrieve Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Three-Dimensional Fibrin Gels.Tissue Engineering: Part C, 20(3):252-6 (2014).



Y.P. Kong, B. Carrion, R.K. Singh, and A.J. Putnam. “Matrix identity and tractional forces influence indirect cardiac reprogramming.Scientific Reports, 3:3474 (Dec. 11, 2013).


B. Carrion, Y.P. Kong, D. Kaigler, and A.J. Putnam.  “Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Enhance Angiogenesis via their a6ß1 Integrin Receptor.Experimental Cell Research, 319(19):2964-76 (2013).


C. Moraes, A.B. Simon, A.J. Putnam, and S. Takayama. “Aqueous two-phase printing of contractile collagen microgels.Biomaterials, 34(37):9623-31 (2013).


R.K. Singh, D. Seliktar, and A.J. Putnam. “Capillary Morphogenesis in PEG-Collagen Hydrogels.Biomaterials, 34(37):9331-40 (2013).


Y. Tang, R.G. Rowe, E.L. Botvinick, A. Kurup, A.J. Putnam, M. Seiki, V.M. Weaver, E.T. Keller, S. Goldstein, J. Dai, D. Begun, T. Saunders, and S.J. Weiss. “MT1-MMP-Dependent Control of Skeletal Stem Cell Commitment via a ß1-Integrin/YAP/TAZ Signaling Axis.Developmental Cell, 25(4):402-16 (2013).


S.J. Grainger, B. Carrion, J. Ceccarelli, and A.J. Putnam. “Stromal Cell Identity Influences the In Vivo Functionality of Engineered Capillary Networks Formed by Co-Delivery of Endothelial Cells and Stromal Cells.Tissue Engineering: Part A, 19(9-10):1209-22 (2013).


S.J. Grainger and A.J. Putnam. “ECM Remodeling in Angiogenesis” (book chapter) in Mechanical and Chemical Signaling in Angiogenesis, ed. C. Reinhart-King, New York, Ny: Springer, pgs. 185-209 (2013).



J. Ceccarelli, A. Cheng, and A.J. Putnam. “Mechanical strain controls endothelial patterning during angiogenic sprouting.Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering, 5(4):463-473 (2012).


R.R. Rao, A.W. Peterson, J. Ceccarelli, A.J. Putnam, and J.P. Stegemann.  “Matrix composition regulates three-dimensional network formation by endothelial cells and mesenchymal stem cells in collagen/fibrin materials.Angiogenesis, 15(2): 253-64 (2012).


S. Kachgal, B. Carrion, I.A. Janson, and A.J. Putnam.  “Bone marrow stromal cells stimulate an angiogenic program that requires endothelial MT1-MMP. Journal of Cellular Physiology, 227(11): 3546-55 (2012).


E. Kniazeva, J.W. Weidling, R. Singh, E.L. Botvinick, M. Digman, E. Gratton, and A.J. Putnam.  “Quantification of Local Matrix Deformations and Mechanical Properties During Capillary Morphogenesis in 3D.Integrative Biology, 4(4): 431-439 (2012).



H.J. Kong, A.J. Putnam, and L.B. Schook, eds. Stem Cells and Revascularization Therapies. CRC Press (December 13, 2011) ISBN: 978-1-4398-0323-3.


S.J. Grainger and A.J. Putnam. “Assessing the permeability of engineered capillary networks in a 3D culture.PLoS ONE, 6(7):e22086 (2011).


M.A. Kotlarchyk, S.G. Shreim, M.B. Alvarez-Elizondo, L.C. Estrada, R. Singh, L. Valdevit, E. Kniazeva, E. Gratton, A.J. Putnam, and E.L. Botvinick. “Concentration independent modulation of local micromechanics in a fibrin gel.PLoS ONE, 6(5):e20201 (2011).


S. Kachgal and A.J. Putnam. “Mesenchymal stem cells from adipose and bone marrow promote angiogenesis via distinct cytokine and protease expression mechanisms.Angiogenesis, 14(1):47-59 (2011). (cover article)


E. Kniazeva, S. Kachgal, and A.J. Putnam. “Effects of ECM density and mesenchymal stem cells on neovascularization in vivo.Tissue Engineering: Part A, 17(7-8):905-14 (2011).



B. Carrion, C.P. Huang, C.M. Ghajar, S. Kachgal, E. Kniazeva, N. L. Jeon, and A.J. Putnam. “Recreating the perivascular niche ex vivo using a microfluidic approach.” Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 107(6): 1024-32 (2010). (cover article)


C.B. Raub, A.J. Putnam, B.J. Tromberg, and S.C. George. “Predicting bulk mechanical properties of cellularized collagen gels using multiphoton microscopy.” Acta Biomaterialia, 6(12): 4657-65 (2010).


C.M. Ghajar, S. Kachgal, E. Kniazeva, H. Mori, S.V. Costes, S.C. George, and A.J. Putnam. “Mesenchymal cells stimulate capillary morphogenesis via distinct proteolytic mechanisms.” Experimental Cell Research, 316(5): 813-25 (2010).


M.A. Kotlarchyk, E.L. Botvinick, and A.J. Putnam. “Characterization of hydrogel microstructure using laser tweezers particle tracking and confocal reflection imaging.” Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 22(19): 194121 (2010).



E. Kniazeva and A.J. Putnam. “Endothelial cell traction and ECM density influence both capillary morphogenesis and maintenance.” American Journal of Physiology: Cell Physiology, 297(1):C179-87 (2009).


P.D. Kim, S.R. Peyton, A.J. VanStrien, and A.J. Putnam. “The influence of ascorbic acid, TGF-B1, and cell-mediated remodeling on the bulk mechanical properties of 3-D PEG-fibrinogen constructs.Biomaterials, 30(23-24):3854-3864 (2009).


C.P. Huang, J. Lu, H. Seon, A.P. Lee, L.A. Flanagan, H-Y Kim, A.J. Putnam, and N.L. Jeon. “Engineering microscale cellular niches for three-dimensional multicellular co-cultures. Lab on a Chip, 9(12):1740-8 (2009).


A.J. Putnam, V.V. Schulz, E.M. Frieter, H.M. Bill, and C.K. Miranti . “Src, PKCalpha, and PKCdelta are required for alphavbeta3 Integrin-Mediated Metastatic Melanoma Invasion.” Cell Communication and Signaling, 7(1):10 (2009). 


C.B. Khatiwala, P.D. Kim, S.R. Peyton, and A.J. Putnam. “ECM compliance regulates osteogenesis via MAPK signaling downstream of RhoA and ROCK.Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 24(5):886-98 (2009).


X. Chen, A.S. Aledia, C.M. Ghajar, C.K. Griffith, A.J. Putnam, C.C.W. Hughes, and S.C. George, “Prevascularization of an engineered tissue construct accelerates the formation of functional anastomoses with host vasculature.Tissue Engineering: Part A, 15(6): 1363-71 (2009).


A.K. Kundu, C.B. Khatiwala, and A.J. Putnam. “ECM remodeling, integrin expression, and downstream signaling pathways influence the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells on poly(lactide-co-glycolide) substrates.Tissue Engineering: Part A, 15(2): 273-283 (2009).



C.M. Ghajar, S.C. George, and A.J. Putnam. “Matrix metalloproteinase control of capillary morphogenesis.” Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression, 18(3): 251-78 (2008).


S.R. Peyton, P.D. Kim, C.M. Ghajar, D. Seliktar, and A.J. Putnam. “The Effects of Matrix Stiffness and RhoA on the Phenotypic Plasticity of Smooth Muscle Cells in a 3-D Biosynthetic Hydrogel System.” Biomaterials, 29(17):2597-607 (2008).


S.J. Gwak, S.H. Bhang, I.K. Kim, S.S. Kim, S.W. Cho, O. Jeon, K.J. Yoo, A.J. Putnam, and B.S. Kim. “The effect of cyclic strain on embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.” Biomaterials, 29(7):844-56 (2008).


C.M. Ghajar, X. Chen, J.W. Harris, V. Suresh, C.C.W. Hughes, N.L. Jeon, A.J. Putnam, and S.C. George. “The effect of matrix density on the regulation of 3-D capillary morphogenesis.” Biophysical Journal, 94(5): 1930-41 (2008).



S.W. Liao, X. Lu, A.J. Putnam, and G.S. Kassab. “A novel time-varying PLGA external sheath for vein grafts designed under physiological loading.” Tissue Engineering, 13(12): 2855-62 (2007).


O. Jeon, S.J. Song, S.W. Kang, A.J. Putnam, and B.S. Kim. “Enhancement of ectopic bone formation by bone morphogenetic protein-2 released from heparin-conjugated poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) scaffolds.” Biomaterials, 28(17): 2763-71 (2007).


C.B. Raub, V. Suresh, T. Krasieva, J. Lyubovitsky, J.D. Mih, A.J. Putnam, B.J. Tromberg, and S.C. George. “Non-invasive assessment of collagen hydrogel microstructure and mechanics using multiphoton microscopy.” Biophysical Journal, 92(6): 2212-22 (2007).


C.M. Ghajar, V. Suresh, S.R. Peyton, C.B. Raub, F.L. Meyskens, S.C. George, and A.J. Putnam. “A novel 3-D model to quantify metastatic melanoma invasion.” Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, 6(2): 552-61 (2007).


C.B. Khatiwala, S.R. Peyton, M. Metzke, and A.J. Putnam. “The regulation of osteogenesis by ECM rigidity in MC3T3-E1 cells requires MAPK activation.” Journal of Cellular Physiology, 211(3): 661-672 (2007).


S.R. Peyton, C.M. Ghajar, C.B. Khatiwala, and A.J. Putnam. “The emergence of ECM mechanics and cytoskeletal tension as important regulators of cell function.” Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics, 47(2): 300-320 (2007).



A.K. Kundu and A.J. Putnam. “Vitronectin and collagen I differentially regulate osteogenesis in mesenchymal stem cells.” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 347(1): 347-57 (2006).


S.R. Peyton, C.B. Raub, V.P. Keschrumrus, and A.J. Putnam. “The use of poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels to investigate the impact of ECM chemistry and mechanics on smooth muscle cells.” Biomaterials, 27(28): 4881-4893 (2006).


C.M. Ghajar, K.S. Blevins, C.C. Hughes, S.C. George, and A.J. Putnam. “Mesenchymal stem cells enhance angiogenesis in mechanically viable prevascularized tissues via early MMP upregulation.Tissue Engineering, 12(10): 2875-288 (2006). (cover article)


S.R. Chastain, A.K. Kundu, S. Dhar, J.W. Calvert, and A.J. Putnam. “The adhesion of mesenchymal stem cells to polymer scaffolds occurs via distinct ECM ligands and controls their osteogenic differentiation.” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research: Part A, 78(1): 73-85 (2006).


C.B. Khatiwala, S.R. Peyton and A.J. Putnam. “The intrinsic mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix affect the behavior of pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells.” American Journal of Physiology: Cell Physiology, 290: C1640-C1650 (2006).



S.R. Peyton and A.J. Putnam. “Extracellular matrix rigidity governs smooth muscle cell motility in a biphasic fashion.” Journal of Cellular Physiology, 204: 198-209 (2005).


2004 and earlier

C.C. Lee, A.J. Putnam, C.K. Miranti, M. Gustafson, L.M. Wang, G.F. Vande Woude, and C.F. Gao. “Overexpression of Sprouty 2-GFP inhibits HGF/SF-mediated cell growth, invasion, migration, and cytokinesis.” Oncogene, 23(30): 5193-202 (2004).


A.J. Putnam, J.J. Cunningham, B.B.L. Pillemer, and D.J. Mooney. “External mechanical strain regulates membrane-targeting of RhoGTPases by controlling microtubule assembly.” American Journal of Physiology: Cell Physiology 284: C627-C639 (2003).


A.J. Putnam, K. Schultz, and D.J. Mooney. “Control of microtubule assembly by extracellular matrix and externally applied strain.” American Journal of Physiology: Cell Physiology, 280: C556-C564 (2001). 


A.J. Putnam, J.J. Cunningham, R.G. Dennis, J.J. Linderman, and D.J. Mooney. “Microtubule assembly is regulated by externally-applied strain in cultured smooth muscle cells. Journal of Cell Science, 111(12): 3379-3387 (1998). 


B.S. Kim, A.J. Putnam, T.J. Kulik, and D.J. Mooney. “Optimizing Seeding and Culture Methods to Engineer Smooth Muscle Tissue on Biodegradable Polymer Matrices.” Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 57(1): 46-54 (1998).


A.J. Putnam and D.J. Mooney. “Tissue engineering using synthetic extracellular matrices.Nature Medicine, 2(7): 824-826 (1996). 

© 2020 by A. Putnam and the Putnam Lab. All rights reserved.